What uses are Go interfaces, and why should I care?

Let’s go down a shallow rabbit hole and talk about the importance of interfaces and how it impacts your code not just for unit testing but also to neatly separate and organize your services.

Note that this article is an introduction to another article that I will be writing shortly after. It is meant to explain why interfaces are important when structuring packages.

For a tl;dr, scroll to the bottom.

It can be hard to grasp a concept without having a realistic and fun example, so let’s make one up.

Let’s pretend we know Bob. Bob wants to test his backend application, because he’s so tired of having to run it in an environment and manually firing up his websites to test it.

Bob’s backend uses SQLite and net/http. In order to test his backend application, Bob thought that he has to simultaneously test SQLite and net/http at the same time, because that’s what his application was wired up to do. This makes sense.

However, often times, you don’t need to test SQLite and net/http, since both of them are battle-tested libraries. You might need to test your SQL, though, but more often than not, you’re looking to test your application logic, and the logic parts don’t particularly have to do with the SQL part.

Here, we see a problem: our SQL logic and application logic should be separate parts of the application, yet our code grouped them together. In other words, we’re tightly coupling them together. Let’s fix that.

Let’s introduce a concept in object-oriented programming.

I know, OOP? I thought that was POOP! Why should I bring POOP into my application? I want to write code, not boilerplate!

Object-oriented programming often gets a lot of bad rap, but just stick with me for a moment.

I want to introduce the concept of polymorphism. In a very simple (and almost incorrect) explanation, polymorphism is describing what we expect a thing to do. For example, if I have a car, I would expect it to start up its engine and move. If I have a washing machine, I would expect it to, you know, wash.

Let’s translate those two examples to code. Let’s say I have a car and a washing machine. How would it look like in Go?

type Car interface {
	StartEngine() error
	Drive(where string)

type WashingMachine interface {
	Wash(clothes []Clothing) error

Sidenote that I’m ignoring the Go interface naming convention in an attempt to simplify the explanation of this concept. Forget about the names.

Let’s say I have a Chevrolet Bolt. That’s a car, and we all know that it is one. Here’s how that would look like in Go.

type ChevroletBolt struct {
	motor     MagneticMotor
	batteries []Battery

func (b *ChevroletBolt) StartEngine() error {
	return b.motor.start()

func (b *ChevroletBolt) Drive(where string) {
	panic("FIXME: missing a driving wheel!")

Notice that ChevroletBolt has 2 methods: StartEngine and Drive, both of which look very similar to what we saw in the Car interface. In Go, this means that we can now use a ChevroletBolt as a Car, like so:

// DriveHome drives the car home.
func DriveHome(car Car) error {
	if err := car.StartEngine(); err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "engine failure")

	return nil

chevyBolt := new(ChevroletBolt)

Simple! The highlight here is that DriveHome doesn’t need to know what the car is exactly. It only needs to know that a car can start its engine and drive. In other words, DriveHome requires something that can StartEngine and Drive, and that’s it.

What does this mean in our backend, then? How is this relevant at all? Well, remember that the problem with testing our backend was that the logic was too coupled to the SQL database code. Does it have to? The logic only needs the SQL database code to store and retrieve data, after all.

If we only need to store and retrieve data, then surely we don’t need all of the SQL code. In fact, we could do that with a JSON flat file. The fact that we know we can swap out the SQL for something else and it would still make sense tells us that we can decouple those two things out the same way we did with our DriveHome method. So let’s do that.

To give a more concrete example, pretend that Bob’s backend serves a bookstore. No, it’s Bob, not Bezos. Bob wants to implement the database that holds his books in SQLite, so Bob writes his HTTP handlers to call on SQL functions. This makes sense, but it’s not ideal. Why?

Let’s step back to the DriveHome example for a moment. Pretend that I’m writing this code for myself, and I own a Chevrolet Bolt. When I think of driving home, I think of driving home my Chevrolet Bolt, because that’s what I have. This makes sense, so let’s rewrite our function.

// DriveHome drives a Chevrolet Bolt home.
func DriveHome(car *ChevroletBolt) error {
	if err := car.StartEngine(); err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "engine failure")

	return nil

To me, this function is still perfectly usable. I can use it on my Chevrolet Bolt, and it would just work. But what happens if I want to test it? What if I have a model car, and I want to try and drive it home? What if I buy a new car? That’s fine, I’ll just copy-paste…

Except we don’t want to copy-paste this. What if the process of driving home is full of turns? What if our function is too complicated to copy-paste? What if we simply don’t want to maintain two versions of the same functionality? This is where you’d think of using an interface.

Did you know that patterns like these are very common in Go? You probably don’t even need to understand Go interfaces to spot them! In fact, if you’re writing a HTTP application, chances are you’re already using one.

Let’s use another short example here, just to prove my point. Say I have a function that copies a file into another file. Let’s write a function prototype for that:

func copyFile(dst *os.File, src string) error

This is a pretty straightforward function. It expects the destination file to be copied onto, and it expects the path to the source file. But this is useless to my HTTP application, because then I would want it to copy the file into my HTTP response, not another file. I’m working with the web, not with my disk. So what now?

The answer is simple: you just change it so it works. Really. Notice how both *os.File and http.ResponseWriter have a Write method. Since copyFile only needs to write, just like how our DriveHome function only needs to start an engine and drive, we can change it as such:

type Writer interface {
	Write(b []byte) (int, error)

func copyFile(w Writer, src string) error

In fact, this is so common that Go defines a Writer interface for us! It’s in package io, so let’s use that.

func copyFile(w io.Writer, src string) error

Now, our copyFile can write to anything that can write, and all is well.

Let’s go back to Bob’s example. Bob’s application actually only needs to store and retrieve data, or in this case, books, so let’s change it as such. But before we do that, let’s all agree that each book is identified by its ISBN. We’ll define a type for that in Go. I won’t be explaining why we should, but let’s just do it:

// ISBN is the International Standard Book Number.
type ISBN string

Let’s also agree that a book, being identified by its ISBN, will also have a title, author, and pages. Here’s that in Go:

type Book struct {
	Title  string
	Author string
	Pages  []Page

Anyway, let’s call the thing that stores and retrieves books a provider. We will define methods to store and retrieve them. Here’s how it would look like in Go:

type BookProvider interface {
	Store(Book) error
	Book(isbn ISBN) (*Book, error)

Note that the retrieval method is named Book. This is Go’s convention for a “getter”, or effectively the retrieval method in this case.

Let’s say that we had a SQL function that retrieves a book by its ISBN before. The function takes in the SQL database instance and the ISBN, then returns the book:

func FindBookByISBN(db *sqlx.DB, isbn ISBN) (*bookstore.Book, error)

The HTTP handler directly calls this function, like so:

type bookHandler struct {
	db *sqlx.DB

func (h *bookHandler) findBook(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	isbn := bookstore.ISBN(r.Query().Get("isbn"))

	b, err := FindBookByISBN(h.db, isbn)
	// err check
	// use b

Since the original problem was that the code was too coupled together, forcing Bob to include SQL in his test, and that we’ve agreed on the solution of decoupling the code, let’s see how that looks like.

Note that I will be writing seemingly very different HTTP handler code from what I have before. If you want to know why, see the earlier article on writing good HTTP handlers.

Anyway, let’s make our handler use the provider interface instead of directly using SQL. Here’s how that’ll look like in Go:

type bookHandler struct {
	books bookstore.BookProvider

func (h *bookHandler) findBook(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	isbn := bookstore.ISBN(r.Query().Get("isbn"))

	b, err := h.books.Book(isbn)
	// err check
	// use b

Since our handler no longer directly requires a *sqlx.DB instance, this means that we no longer need anything SQL to use the handler. So let’s not do that, but instead, let’s write a book provider that can only provide a single book. Here’s how that’ll look like:

type singleBookProvider struct {
	book bookstore.Book

func (p *singleBookProvider) Book(isbn ISBN) (*bookstore.Book, error) {
	if isbn == p.book.ISBN {
		return &p.book, nil
	return nil, bookstore.ErrBookNotFound

func (p *singleBookProvider) Store(bookstore.Book) error {
	return errors.New("cannot store book: singleBookProvider is read only.")

Notice how we’ve stubbed our Store method. It does nothing. This is fine, because we don’t need it to do anything. Our findBook handler only needs to retrieve a book, so why should we care?

Note that idiomatically, you would normally have this handler only require the Book method. As we’ve subtly seen above, types can implement interfaces without ever needing to say that it does, so anyone can define interfaces similar to it. If you don’t understand what this means, that’s fine; carry on.

Now, with our singleBookProvider, we can plug it directly into bookHandler and run it without needing any SQL. Any HTTP request performed will not use any SQL, and will instead only hit our singleBookProvider. But what does this mean for Bob?

We’ve shown that the handler is now decoupled from the SQL code so that it no longer needs a SQL instance in order to work. This means that the logic of the handler is now decoupled from the SQL’s. This means that for Bob, he can now write HTTP handler tests without needing a working SQL database. Instead, he could just write stub types for each handler and test that the handlers are responding with what is expected.

Testing is easy again, and life is good again.

So how exactly should we write the old SQL code? Let’s separate that code into an entirely different package. I won’t be going into the reasons why, but keep in mind that well-decoupled code are easy to separate because they’re well-decoupled.

Here’s roughly how that would look like if we spare it a package sql inside ./internal/providers/sql/sql.go:

package sql

type bookProvider struct {

func NewBookProvider(db *sqlx.DB) bookstore.BookProvider {
	return bookProvider{db}

func (p bookProvider) Book(isbn bookstore.ISBN) (*bookstore.Book, error) {
	var book bookstore.Book

	row := p.DB.QueryRow("SELECT FROM books WHERE isbn = ?", string(isbn))
	if err := row.StructScan(&book); err != nil {
		return nil, err

	return &book, nil

func (p bookProvider) Store(book bookstore.Book) error {
	_, err := p.DB.Exec(
		"INSERT INTO books (isbn, title, author) VALUES (?, ?, ?)",
		string(book.ISBN), book.Title, book.Author,
	return err

This has the nice side effect of having our SQL code separated from the HTTP handler and into neatly organized structures that separate the parts of the SQL database. How you might choose to split the providers is up to you, but the concept is the same.

Alright, that was long. So what? Bob gets his tests done, but what have we learned?

Well, we’ve learned that interfaces just describe the things that we want something to do. When we have code that needs a certain thing to do something else, instead of requiring that exact thing, we can instead write a description of what we want it to do. That is basically what interfaces are for.

So the next time you find yourself needing to mock a SQL database to test, think twice: do you really need to do that? What are you actually testing? Can you decouple it further?

And knowing when and how to decouple is also very important for organizing packages. I really cannot stretch this enough. Once you know how to decouple your code properly so that each component won’t hard-depend on each other, organizing packages suddenly becomes so intuitive. Because your code would’ve been separated already, it would be almost effortless.

If you want to know how to structure your packages properly, keep an eye on this blog. I will be writing one about it very soon. I will post a link on top of this article, but I won’t remove this paragraph. If you’re reading this paragraph and the link is already there, then now you know to scroll up.